I recently saw a short video about how hard determinists respond to people with an addiction (addiction to alcohol was the example used).
The premise of the video is simple. If an alcohol addict comes to a hard determinist and asks for help, what advice could they offer the addict that would not make him or her despair? If they just tell the addict that they don’t have free will, the addict might lose hope.
The hard determinist in the video responds that they could help the addict by identifying the influences that are contributing to their addiction and offering the addict a series of steps that they could follow to recover. This is what agencies like Alcoholics Anonymous do. We can’t just tell the addict “you’ve got to recover, or else!” We have to tell them how to do that.
Here is my response, as a libertarian about free will.
First of all, it’s not clear to me why we can’t tell the addict “you’ve got to recover,or else!” The addict has the ability to choose whether he will continue drinking alcohol. It will be very difficult for him, but in the vast majority of cases the addict does have the ability to quit by will power.
Nevertheless, there are ways of making it easier for an alcoholic to quit using alcohol, and it is useful for the addict to be made familiar with these so that he will be more likely to recover. This is not inconsistent with free will, since the existence of libertarian free will is consistent with there being limitations on our consciousness.
The fact that there are limitations on our consciousness has very important epistemological and moral implications. Specifically, it means that I can’t expect more out of my mind than it can deliver. I need to keep the fact that my consciousness has limitations in mind when I am planning out how to study for a test, e.g., I shouldn’t make a plan to study for ten hours straight, since that would cause exhaustion. This process of forming plans in light of what one’s mind is capable of is an important responsibility that every adult has.
The fact that some means of recovering from addiction make it easier to recover than others is not a refuge from responsibility, it is an instance of responsibility. If someone is addicted to alcohol, they have a responsibility to think about the problem and seek out the most effective means of escaping their addiction, like joining Alcoholics Anonymous. If an alcoholic tries to quit on his own, fails, and does not seek out a more effective means of quitting, then that is a form of irresponsibility on his part, albeit one less severe than not trying to quit at all.
So, to return to the main issue at stake: Is libertarianism a more effective framework for quitting an addiction than hard determinism?
In spite of the arguments in the video, I say yes. Libertarianism implies that the addict can usually quit on his own, by his own will power, or find an effective method of quitting that is based on research other people have done. This is a more encouraging message than the video’s brand of determinism, which implies that he is helpless to quit unless someone else saves him by spoon feeding him the steps required to quit.